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Read Download Industrial Automated Systems: Instrumentation and Motion Control |PDF books PDF Free Download Here. This books (Industrial Automated Systems: Instrumentation and Motion Control [ PDF]) Made by Terry Bartelt About Books INDUSTRIAL. Industrial Automated Systems: Instrumentation and Motion Control by Terry L. Regulatory Control: System Design and Applications, Third Edition by Harold L.
An example is an elevator, which uses logic based on the system state to perform certain actions in response to its state and operator input. For example, if the operator presses the floor n button, the system will respond depending on whether the elevator is stopped or moving, going up or down, or if the door is open or closed, and other conditions. Relays were first used in telegraph networks before being developed for controlling other devices, such as when starting and stopping industrial-sized electric motors or opening and closing solenoid valves.
Using relays for control purposes allowed event-driven control, where actions could be triggered out of sequence, in response to external events. These were more flexible in their response than the rigid single-sequence cam timers. More complicated examples involved maintaining safe sequences for devices such as swing bridge controls, where a lock bolt needed to be disengaged before the bridge could be moved, and the lock bolt could not be released until the safety gates had already been closed.
The total number of relays, cam timers, and drum sequencers can number into the hundreds or even thousands in some factories. Early programming techniques and languages were needed to make such systems manageable, one of the first being ladder logic , where diagrams of the interconnected relays resembled the rungs of a ladder.
Special computers called programmable logic controllers were later designed to replace these collections of hardware with a single, more easily re-programmed unit. In a typical hard wired motor start and stop circuit called a control circuit a motor is started by pushing a "Start" or "Run" button that activates a pair of electrical relays.
The "lock-in" relay locks in contacts that keep the control circuit energized when the pushbutton is released. The start button is a normally open contact and the stop button is normally closed contact.
Another relay energizes a switch that powers the device that throws the motor starter switch three sets of contacts for three-phase industrial power in the main power circuit. Large motors use high voltage and experience high in-rush current, making speed important in making and breaking contact. This can be dangerous for personnel and property with manual switches.
The "lock-in" contacts in the start circuit and the main power contacts for the motor are held engaged by their respective electromagnets until a "stop" or "off" button is pressed, which de-energizes the lock in relay. Suppose that the motor in the example is powering machinery that has a critical need for lubrication.
In this case, an interlock could be added to ensure that the oil pump is running before the motor starts. Timers, limit switches, and electric eyes are other common elements in control circuits. Solenoid valves are widely used on compressed air or hydraulic fluid for powering actuators on mechanical components. While motors are used to supply continuous rotary motion, actuators are typically a better choice for intermittently creating a limited range of movement for a mechanical component, such as moving various mechanical arms, opening or closing valves, raising heavy press rolls, applying pressure to presses.
Computer control[ edit ] Computers can perform both sequential control and feedback control, and typically a single computer will do both in an industrial application. Programmable logic controllers PLCs are a type of special purpose microprocessor that replaced many hardware components such as timers and drum sequencers used in relay logic type systems.
General purpose process control computers have increasingly replaced stand-alone controllers, with a single computer able to perform the operations of hundreds of controllers. Process control computers can process data from a network of PLCs, instruments, and controllers in order to implement typical such as PID control of many individual variables or, in some cases, to implement complex control algorithms using multiple inputs and mathematical manipulations.
They can also analyze data and create real-time graphical displays for operators and run reports for operators, engineers, and management. Control of an automated teller machine ATM is an example of an interactive process in which a computer will perform a logic derived response to a user selection based on information retrieved from a networked database. The ATM process has similarities with other online transaction processes.
The different logical responses are called scenarios.
Such processes are typically designed with the aid of use cases and flowcharts , which guide the writing of the software code. The earliest feedback control mechanism was the water clock invented by Greek engineer Ctesibius — BC Early history[ edit ] Ctesibius's clepsydra 3rd century BC.
It was a preoccupation of the Greeks and Arabs in the period between about BC and about AD to keep accurate track of time.
In Ptolemaic Egypt , about BC, Ctesibius described a float regulator for a water clock , a device not unlike the ball and cock in a modern flush toilet. This was the earliest feedback controlled mechanism. Another control mechanism was used to tent the sails of windmills. It was patented by Edmund Lee in Bunce of England in as part of a model steam crane. The governor was able to handle smaller variations such as those caused by fluctuating heat load to the boiler.
Also, there was a tendency for oscillation whenever there was a speed change. As a consequence, engines equipped with this governor were not suitable for operations requiring constant speed, such as cotton spinning. Advances in the steam engine stayed well ahead of science, both thermodynamics and control theory.
Development of the electronic amplifier during the s, which was important for long distance telephony, required a higher signal to noise ratio, which was solved by negative feedback noise cancellation. This and other telephony applications contributed to control theory. In the s and s, German mathematician Irmgard Flugge-Lotz developed the theory of discontinuous automatic controls, which found military applications during the Second World War to fire control systems and aircraft navigation systems.
Central electric power stations were also undergoing rapid growth and operation of new high-pressure boilers, steam turbines and electrical substations created a large demand for instruments and controls. Central control rooms became common in the s, but as late as the early s, most process control was on-off. Operators typically monitored charts drawn by recorders that plotted data from instruments. To make corrections, operators manually opened or closed valves or turned switches on or off.
Control rooms also used color-coded lights to send signals to workers in the plant to manually make certain changes. Controllers allowed manufacturing to continue showing productivity gains to offset the declining influence of factory electrification. Alexander Field notes that spending on non-medical instruments increased significantly from —33 and remained strong thereafter.
Significant applications[ edit ] The automatic telephone switchboard was introduced in along with dial telephones. Automatic telephone switching originally used vacuum tube amplifiers and electro-mechanical switches, which consumed a large amount of electricity.
Call volume eventually grew so fast that it was feared the telephone system would consume all electricity production, prompting Bell Labs to begin research on the transistor. The first commercially successful glass bottle blowing machine was an automatic model introduced in Sectional electric drives were developed using control theory.
Sectional electric drives are used on different sections of a machine where a precise differential must be maintained between the sections. In steel rolling, the metal elongates as it passes through pairs of rollers, which must run at successively faster speeds.
In paper making the paper sheet shrinks as it passes around steam heated drying arranged in groups, which must run at successively slower speeds. The first application of a sectional electric drive was on a paper machine in In , with the widespread use of instruments and the emerging use of controllers, the founder of Dow Chemical Co.
This soon evolved into computerized numerical control CNC.
Today extensive automation is practiced in practically every type of manufacturing and assembly process. Some of the larger processes include electrical power generation, oil refining, chemicals, steel mills, plastics, cement plants, fertilizer plants, pulp and paper mills, automobile and truck assembly, aircraft production, glass manufacturing, natural gas separation plants, food and beverage processing, canning and bottling and manufacture of various kinds of parts.
Robots are especially useful in hazardous applications like automobile spray painting. Robots are also used to assemble electronic circuit boards. Automotive welding is done with robots and automatic welders are used in applications like pipelines. During the s and s, German mathematician Irmgard Flugge-Lotz developed the theory of discontinuous automatic control, which became widely used in hysteresis control systems such as navigation systems , fire-control systems , and electronics.
Through Flugge-Lotz and others, the modern era saw time-domain design for nonlinear systems , navigation , optimal control and estimation theory , nonlinear control theory , digital control and filtering theory , and the personal computer Advantages and disadvantages[ edit ] Perhaps the most cited advantage of automation in industry is that it is associated with faster production and cheaper labor costs.
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